Volume 3 Issue 7
The Importance of Scientific Divulgation
Irineu Gregnanin Pedron and Rafaela Rodrigues Cavalcanti
In current times, social networks are gaining prominence and
users acquire a reputation at the expense of the dissemination
of information without scientific nature. Science only reaches
importance if it achieves benefits aimed at the great society, be
it regional, national or worldwide. We are living through the
COVID-19 pandemic and any knowledge acquired is welcome for
the use of the common good. In this perspective, it is essential to
observe the importance of scientific publications, as well as their
social applicability .
Volume 3 Issue 7
Intraosseous Lesions of the Jaws: Excisional or Incisional Biopsy? Algorithm for Decision Making
Solano Nicolas, Villarroel-Dorrego Mariana, Peraza Arianny, Rios Elvia and Chirinos Yenielis
Intraosseous lesions of the jaws appear as a wide spectrum of pathologies with different clinical and histopathological
characteristics, ranging from benign, aggressive or malignant lesions that have different management, directly influencing the
function and aesthetics of patients; therefore, early diagnosis is of vital importance to prevent more invasive treatments and decrease
morbidity rates. The type of biopsy technique to choose will depend on a series of pre-surgical considerations, starting from the
clinical evaluation of the patient, complementary examinations and differential diagnoses. The objective of this review is to determine
the clinical and imaging parameters in intraosseous pathologies of the jaws that could lead the surgeon to perform incisional or
excisional biopsy, as well as to present an algorithm for decision-making.
Keywords:Intraosseous Pathologies; Jaws; Incisional Biopsy; Excisional Biopsy; Management Algorithm
Volume 3 Issue 7
A Short Review of the Role of Genetic in Oral and Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Huáscar Aillón López and Valeria Aillón López
This review aimed to analyze the role of genetic in oral cancer. Head and Neck cancer is multifactorial disease in which a wide factors
play a role in its apparition and progress. More than 90% of malignant neoplasms are oral squamous cell carcinoma developed
on the mucous epithelium and the sixth most common cancer in the world. The environment, such as smokeless tobacco, alcohol,
betel quid chewing are most common factors are involved in the etiology of the oral cancer. Several genes and pathways associated
with oral squamous cell carcinoma are significant in terms of early detection and prognosis. Molecular biomarkers are being discovered
in oral cancer diagnostic. It could be used as screening for detection and improve therapeutic strategies of oral pre-cancer and
oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Keywords: Oral Cancer; Biomarkers; Molecular Pathways
Volume 3 Issue 7
Masseter Muscle Adaptation Following Orthognathic Surgery - MRI Analysis
Fernando Duarte, João Neves Silva, Colin Hopper and Nigel Hunt
Orthodontic and surgical technical advances in recent years have resulted in treatment opportunities for a whole range of craniofacial
skeletal disorders either in the adolescent or adult patient. In the growing child these can include myofunctional orthodontic
appliance therapy or distraction osteogenesis procedures, whilst in the adult the mainstay approach revolves around orthognathic
The literature agrees that for a change in craniofacial morphology to remain stable, the muscles acting upon the facial skeleton
must be capable of adaptation in their structure and, therefore, their function. Failure of the muscles to adapt to the change in their
length or orientation will place undesirable forces on the muscle attachments leading to potential instability of the skeleton. Adaptation
can occur through various processes including those within the neuromuscular feedback mechanism, through changes within
muscle structure or through altered muscle physiology, and through changes at the muscle/bone interface.
This prospective, case controlled clinical study was designed to provide information in relation to masticatory muscle adaptation
following orthognathic surgery. Both for ease of access, and in order to provide data suitable for comparison with previous studies of
muscle function, the muscle chosen for investigation was the masseter muscle.
It is now accepted that because there is no single method of assessing masticatory function, several measures should be taken,
and whenever possible, simultaneously.
This pilot investigation was designed to apply several, newly developed and more sophisticated methods of measuring muscle
structure and function to a situation where adaptation of muscle is pivotal to the success of a therapeutic approach.
Patients attending the combined orthodontic/orthognathic surgery clinic at the Clitrofa - Centro Médico, Dentário e Cirúrgico,
in Trofa - Portugal were screen. Ten patients scheduled for a bimaxillary osteotomy involving a combination of maxillary Le Fort I
impaction procedure coupled with a sagittal split advancement of the mandible were select to form the study group.
The 10 patients have Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the masseter muscle to evaluate the masseter muscle volume and
fibre orientation changes. This exam was taken before surgery and 6 to 12 months after surgery according to the protocol jointly developed
between the Eastman Dental Institute - University of London and the MRI Centre - Department of Radiology at John Radcliffe
Hospital - University of Oxford.
Keywords: Orthognathic Surgery; Masseter Muscle; MRI Analysis
Volume 3 Issue 7
Graft-Less Solution for Extreme Atrophic Maxilla: Zygomatic
and Short Implants Combined - Case Series
Fernando Duarte, Luis Pinheiro, Carina Ramos and João Neves Silva
Background: Zygomatic implants have been in use since the 1990’s for the treatment of patients with severely resorbed posterior
maxilla. In the anterior premaxilla the viability and high success rate seen with short implants reinforce their choice. The combination
of these two implants solutions may allow eliminating grafting and immediate function.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a protocol for immediate function with fixed prostheses for patients with extreme
maxillary atrophy, treated with two zygomatic implants (S.I.N.-Implant System, São Paulo, Brazil) combined with 2 short implants
(S.I.N.-Implant System, São Paulo, Brazil).
Materials and Methods: This prospective clinical study included 12 patients with 48 immediately loaded implants (24 zygomatic
implants and 24 short implants) with fixed provisional acrylic prosthesis attached 5 to 6 hours after surgery.
Results: The patients’ follow-up was from 12 to 60 months. Two short implants failed (implant survival rate 92%), none of the zygomatic
implants failed (implant survival rate 100%). There were no complications such as sinusitis, hygiene maintenance or speech
Discussion: The results support the hypothesis that immediate function with two zygomatic implants combined with two short
implants is a viable concept. The clinical success for these patients was enhanced by the shorter time span of the treatment process
and the immediate rehabilitation in a comfortable manner as compared to grafting based procedures.
Conclusion: The high survival rate, the increase of patients’ demand in immediate functional ability and the less morbidity following
the surgical procedure renders this immediate function procedure a viable treatment option of the resorbed fully edentulous maxilla.
Keywords:Zygomatic Implant; Short Implant; Edentulous Maxilla; Atrophic Maxilla; Immediate Function
Volume 3 Issue 7
Simplified Technique for Obtaining Autologous Block Graft: A Case Report
Ferrer Balart Marcelo, Castillo Parraguez Ignacio and Casals Söderlund Montserrat
Predictability and prognosis in dental implants are transcendental topics in good planning and final results. The planning of bone
regeneration acquires great importance. The block graft, although it improves the quality and bone volume predictably, is difficult
and generally requires a second surgical wound, making surgery more difficult and generating greater postoperative discomfort
in the patient. In the following case, a variant of the classic block graft technique is described to simplify it, using only one surgical
wound. Furthermore, it allows to optimize the surgical and prosthetic times, requiring only two surgical times, with a good prognosis
and predictable in time. Seven months after the first surgery, a good bone ridge and an optimal emergence profile were obtained to
perform the single fixed prosthesis on implants.
Keywords:Alveolar Ridge Augmentation; Bone Resorption; Bone Transplantation; Dental Implantation; Khoury Technique; Autogenous
Volume 3 Issue 7
How to Get Better Outcomes in the Management of Symptomatic Bruxism:
Association between Occlusal Splint and Botulinum Toxin
Ariane de Freitas dos Santos, Mahingler Aparecida Tonan dos Santos, Felipe Paes Varoli, Caleb Shitsuka and
Irineu Gregnanin Pedron
The application of botulinum toxin has been widely used in dentistry in various stomatological indications, such as gummy smile
and lip asymmetry, temporomandibular disorders (trismus, temporomandibular joint dislocation), dystonia oromandibular, sialorrhea,
facial palsy, orofacial pain, parafunctional habits (bruxism and clenching) and its consequences, as masseteric hypertrophy. The
purpose of this study is to report the case of a patient with bruxism who presented orofacial pain and headache secondary to parafunctional
habit, dysphagia and insomnia. The patient received botulinum toxin injections, even having already been user of occlusal
splint, reducing hypermyotonia of masseter and temporal muscles and secondary complaints. The application of botulinum toxin is a
useful therapeutic option, being effective to improve the quality of life of patients with bruxism and clenching in the highest degree,
uncooperative or resistant to medical and dental treatment.
Keywords:Bruxism; Headache; Muscle Hypertonia; Occlusal Splint; Type A Botulinum Toxins